Tai Chi – A Coping Mechanism for Illness

The Chinese are famous for various forms of holistic health practices, such as acupuncture, massage, and herbalism, all of which are used widely throughout the world as an alternative means of improving quality of life and alleviating sickness. My personal experience with Chinese therapy came in the form of practicing Tai Chi, or Tai Chi Chuan or Quan  (太极拳); a meditative sport based on martial arts techniques that were developed in China in the 16th Century A.D.

The name Tai Chi in its self is self-explanatory. Tai Chi (太极) means balance, and Quan (拳) meaning fist denotes martial arts discipline or style. Qi or Chi means the life energy that runs through all living things, and it is believed in Chinese medicine that the imbalance in Qi force is what brings about illness and disease. Tai Chi has been reported to have numerous benefits such as improved muscular strength, flexibility, fitness, enhance immunity, relieve pain and improve quality of life through reduced stress and anxiety.

Yin and yang symbol for balance and the opposite forces of masculine/feminine energies. Traditional Chinese Medicine preaches that good health is achieved by maintaining a balance between yin and yang.

Before starting my journey with Tai Chi, I read a lot about it online, and I found that indeed it has many documented health benefits published in well – respected scientific journals. An article in the British Journal of Sports Medicine conducted a study which analyzed the results of 33 experiments involving 1584 participants. The most important findings of this article were that Tai Chi showed favorable effects on walking, knee extension strength and quality of life in most or all of the four chronic conditions under study, which were cancer, osteoarthritis, heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Another article published in JAMA Internal Medicine demonstrated the effectiveness of Tai Chi on health outcomes in older patients with chronic conditions such as cardiovascular and respiratory issues. The article reported that Tai Chi had a positive impact on patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery as well as in patients with heart failure, hypertension, acute myocardial infarction, arthritis, and multiple sclerosis.

For me personally, Tai Chi helped me immensely in overcoming a severe condition of vertigo (dizziness), that had left me on bed rest for almost three months. At the beginning of my illness, when I was still undiagnosed and so was not on any proper medication, the sport offered a gentle form of movement that did not overly tax my sensitive system.

Tai Chi allowed me to gradually regain my sense of balance, at a time when even yoga was too much for me (since yoga involved a lot of bending, which is impossible with severe vertigo). Moreover, Tai Chi kept me at a constant state of calmness and relaxation, which was a much-needed relief for someone who suffers from Meniere’s Disease. As someone who also finds it extremely difficult to actually sit still and meditate, Tai Chi was a perfect alternative, as it involved a balanced combination of movement and stillness that effectively calms nerves and quietens the senses.

 “The philosophy of Tai Chi is that, if one uses hardness to resist violent force, then both sides are certainly to be injured. Students are taught not to directly fight an incoming force, but to meet it in softness while remaining in physical contact until the incoming force of attack exhausts itself or can be safely redirected, meeting yang with yin.Lao Tzŭ provided the archetype for this in the Tao Te Ching when he wrote, “The soft and the pliable will defeat the hard and strong.”

Wikipedia.com

Zhang Sanfeng

The story of Tai Chi started with a Taoist philosopher named Zhang Sanfeng while mediating in the mountains on the philosophy behind yin and yang. Zhang Sanfeng was inspired by a fight between a snake and a bird to create one of the earliest forms of defensive martial arts. However, it was not until the 16th Century that Tai Chi began taking its modern outlook. Tai Chi’s earliest form is known as the Chen tradition (陳氏). This form is credited to a mixture between Chen Boxing, which was characterized by intense bursts of movements, and the additions which Chen Wangting brought to the discipline, introducing elements of yin/yang theory of movement and chi philosophy. 

Sanfeng was inspired by a fight between a snake and a bird to create one of the earliest forms of defensive martial arts. However, it was not until the 16th Century that Tai Chi began taking its modern outlook. Tai Chi’s earliest form is known as the Chen tradition (陳氏). This form is credited to a mixture between Chen Boxing, which was characterized by intense bursts of movements, and the additions which Chen Wangting brought to the discipline, introducing elements of yin/yang theory of movement and chi philosophy.


At that time, knowledge of Tai Chi was limited to members of the Chen family, until the 19th Century when an outsider named Yang Luchan was allowed to learn Tai Chi. He later on devised his own form of the sport called Yang Style, which is characterized by slower, and more rounded looking movement. The Yang style is what eventually took off in the whole world, and that is the style most commonly practiced today.

Tai Chi 24 movement short form

The Yang style (楊氏) fundamentally changed Tai Chi into a meditative sport that is no longer a hard-core martial art. As it exists today, Tai Chi has become a gentle practice that everyone can pursue regardless of their physical attributes. The most commonly practiced form is the 24 movement routine, dubbed as the “short form.” The “long form” consists of 48 movements, which build upon the short form. There are three other significant forms in Tai Chi, the Wu Hao style (武氏), the Wu style (吳氏), and the Sun style (孫氏).

Traditional weapons used in some forms of Tai Chi

Tai Chi has made a significant and fundamental effect in my health, as it helped me to gradually “reteach” my self how to walk, after months of violent vertigo episodes that had previously left me completely motionless. I hope for everyone out there who suffers from any rare or chronic disease to give alternative medicine a chance. Who knows, maybe it will surprise you!

P.S. Resources for learners: YouTube has a ton of free video’s for anyone curious about Tai Chi, but my personal favorite training guide was this paid course.

About

Culturistic celebrates diversity by highlighting the beauty of national cultures and the small, forgotten initiatives aiding local communities. We are a group of people who find immense joy in listening to an African song, watching a Latin American movie, or learning about an Asian NGO aiding small villages.

Culturistic was born out of our passion for telling the human stories behind economic and sustainable development. It is our aim to shed light on the extraordinary places, peoples, and programs our magical world has to offer.   

If you are a traveler or an exchange student who wants to explore the unique culture of the country you are visiting, or you are humanitarian who wants to stay informed of the latest initiatives in a given country, then you are in luck, because we bring it all to you in one place.

The Moroccan Kasbah du Toubkal & the Imazighen Who Live There

When I hear the name Morocco, what immediately jumps in my mind are the colorful mosaic art, amazing architecture and the exotic smells of Ginger, Turmeric and Paprika spices you find walking down the streets of its lovely capital. But there is much more to Morocco than what meets the eye. Morocco actually has extremely diverse touristic attractions of hidden gems scattered across the country.

Set in the small village of Imlil in the Atlas Mountains range in Morocco, Kasbah du Toubkal is a beautiful Eco-lodge that was restored in 1995 by British traveler Mike McHugo. The lodge has a long history, where it was initially the home of a former caïd (a local baron) in 1937. Since electricity did not reach Imlil till 197, the lodge was rebuilt using traditional tools and equipment, with mules carrying the needed construction material up the mountains.

What’s even more interesting for me is how Kasbah du Toubkal is operated in partnership with the local Berber community, where 5% of revenues are funneled back to the villagers.  To support local development efforts, an umbrella organization called “The Association of the Valleys of Imlil” was created in 1999 with representatives from all the villages in the Imlil valley, giving the region more credibility in implementing local projects and receiving much-needed funds from the domestic and international donation. 

Imazighen Woman

The Association’s first project attempted to resolve the transportation difficulty facing residents of the valley by starting an ambulance and driver service. Activities undertaken by the Association over the years included building a community bath (hammam), support of modern apprenticeships and craft training at the Imlil School, and reinforcement to the flood protection in the village, among others.

Imazighen Flag

The Berber community (or the Imazighen as they prefer being called, meaning free people), are considered the indigenous people of North Africa, who represent numerous heterogeneous ethnic groups sharing similar cultural, political and economic practices. And no, they are not nomadic people. Imazighen are actually village dwellers who survive on agriculture, herding, and trade. The Berber language, Tamazight includes more than thirty distinct languages and hundreds of different dialects.

When I first heard Tamazight music, I was entirely captivated by the moving, romantic sounding language of this culture. One of my favorites is this song by a band called Oudaden founded in 1978 in the Sous region of Morocco. Imazighen languages and culture were banned by the Moroccan government for an extended period. Thankfully this ban was lifted in 2003 when King Mohammed VI started integrating the language in the school system, in an attempt to combine the local community in modern day Morocco.

Morocco alone is home to numerous Imazighen tribes such as the Dades in the North East of the country, and the Mesgita, who live along the rivers in the North West. Shilha – the Arabic word for all Berber languages – includes three distinct groups of Shilha Berbers, the Northern (Rif) Berbers, the Southern (Sousi) Berbers, and the Central (Berber) Berbers.

The term Kabyle originally meant “the tribes,” referring to all groups of Berbers. Nowadays the term refers to two distinct groups, the those living in Al-Quabail Mountains, and the Sousi Berbers native to the beautiful village of Imlil, (with the fantastic lodge mentioned above) located in the Marrakesh Safi province – one of 12 regions in Morocco.

The Sousi or southern Shelha inhabit the high Western Atlas and Anti-Atlas mountains. They mainly work in herding and agriculture, planting only two crops a year as a result of the harsh winter climate. Many members of the tribes migrated to cities – such as Casablanca and Tangiers – where they established monopolies in the grocery business. The Soussi are argued to have strong political influence since their support for the independence from French.

Asian squirrel

I love squirrels 🙂 Once I was in London and I gave one of them a small M&M and all of a sudden my parents found a line of them following me around the park.

Oh, border!

Gahaha, I just have to do this one!

Corniest of all corn in the world:
Q: Why is this an Asian squirrel?

Tada~
A: Because it eats rice!

* * *

Pardon me for the silly riddle. I captured this pic when I first moved back to Singapore and was working from a park then, as I badly need connection to nature more than WiFi.  That was after years of living in villages, and I was suffocating in the concrete jungle even though my parents had filled the entire 18th floor with greens to make me more at home.

So. Here I was sitting in a real jungle, getting all distracted taking pics of spiders (small, innocent ones, unlike those of Australia’s. heh heh), ants – the red juicy-assed ones, feathery looking animals that move on their own (and were definitely not feathers), and this squirrel hopped into the…

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The Untold Story of Syrian Refugees in Short Film

A sad part of our modern day and age is how assimilated we have become to news media stories on international conflict and war. When a conflict takes place over a long duration of time, the casualties become nothing more than figures across a screen. After all, Stalin put the matter best when he proclaimed that “the death of a person is a tragedy… the death of a million is a statistic.”

That is what the Syrian conflict has become to us. Not only that but with the vast number of people fleeing their homes, Syrian refugees have become an “international concern.” The 5.3 million refugees scattered across the globe are deemed a “logistical nightmare” due to the difficulties in setting up refugee camps and a nuisance to Western society’s. 

In the middle of all of that, we forgot to listen to the human voices behind those overwhelming statistics…

And that’s what Mohammad JD did in “No Place Like Hope,” a short movie about the lives of Syrian refugees. This moving video reminds us that life in a refugee camp is nothing short of a continuous struggle to survive both the physical and mental anguish that have plagued these communities, who often have to make – do with minimal resources.

The dire situation in refugee camps includes lack of access to basic human needs such as food, water, and proper shelter. Yet, this hardship only cements the strong neighborly, and humanitarian sense Syrian culture is known for. “They would split the apple they have and share it with you,” Mohamed says in his movie, showing how even the hunger-stricken individual understands the hardship incurred by his fellow refugee.

Mohamed Jamal El Din explains in further detail the motivation behind his activism in a TedEx talk titled “What If We Were Friends.” I was moved to tears by the inspiration for his journey when an impoverished woman with two dead kids and a sick child asked: “please make me a promise to help others in need.”

However, western societies view refugees as a burden on their communities. “We are worried if they come here we’ll end up babysitting them,” A New York friend of Mohamed said. People forget that refugees include Syrian citizens with degrees in medicine, engineering, humanities, and arts. They are not a burden, but a people who can effectively contribute to foreign societies and cultures by enriching them. Yes, Syria is a Middle Eastern country that belongs to the developing world, but consider for a second the possibility that a Syrian refugee doctor “could one day save your life.”

Child Labor… A Necessary Evil – Part 2

Imagine if you will, walking down the streets of London in the year 1800. At the height, if its industrial age the city’s buildings have all turned into an unseemly grey hue from the factories nearby. You look up at the sky and see thick fog engulfing the city in a tight blanket for as far as the eye could see.

Yet, you are happily willing to accept the pollution, for after all England was ushered into the age of steam engines and the accompanying material wealth due to its zealous pursuit of industrialization. England had suffered miserably in the 1700s from high unemployment, and the new steam factories offered an excellent chance to turn things around. 
Or did it?

Imagine also, after a nice meal in one of London’s restaurants, you decide to take a walk around in the city. After all, the streets which were broken down in the last century have just been paved over, allowing carts and people to start driving and walking safely.  Its 8 PM and your legs take you to a small weaving workshop, where you see tens of 12 years old children file out into the streets. The children are going home for the day, only to sleep a meager amount of hours so they can wake up the next day at the crack of dawn to toil away their soft skin into callused hands.

While the industrial revolution taking Europe by a storm was hailed as the primary engine of economic abundance, factories often had an ugly underbelly that revealed the need for national and international laws to regulate their operations. Namely working condition and child labor.

Many children were sent there from workhouses or orphanages to work long hours in hot, dusty and dangerous conditions, where their tiny bodies would be utilized to crawl through narrow spaces between fast-moving machinery. It was not uncommon for children to have a 12-hour working day, and accidents happened frequently.

By 1810, about 2 million school-age children were working 50- to 70-hour weeks. Most came from poor families. Poverty stricken families unable to provide for their children would sometimes turn them over to a mill or factory owner, where they would earn a meager salary for endless hours of painstaking and often dangerous labor.

Are you outraged? Trust me you are not alone…

Britain was the first to pass laws regulating child labor. From 1802 to 1878, a series of laws gradually came to the scene with the aim of shortening working hours, improving working conditions, and raising the age at which children could work. Other European countries adopted similar laws.

However, a law is often only the first step towards changing cultural attitudes. In often cases, culture might actually take more time to catch up with a legal framework, than the other way around. In the case of child labor, we must always bear in mind that in the 1800s, when such laws first started emerging, the global scene probably considered child labor as means out of poverty and degradation for many families, who could not otherwise feed their children. As the example of Britain shows, this attitude was shared by both developed and developing countries alike.

Moreover, we need to pay close attention to the reasons behind the regulatory framework, and to look deeper into a more comprehensive picture of beneficial child employment. The law was clearly motivated by protecting children in dangerous circumstances, as well as protecting children from dropping out of school at an early age.

However, what happens then to the kids who help their parents on their farms, or in their stores? What becomes of high school youth who are willing to work as to make some extra money during school vacations? For me personally, I am a massive fan of apprenticeship systems that helped youth get on-the-job training and learn valuable skills that are often neglected by the education system.

The answer to all of that, was a compromise. Without completely eliminating all forms of child employment, the member nations of the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the United Nations ratified three key documents that shape the global understanding of child labor, namely the ILO minimum Age Convention No, 138 of 1973, ILO Convention No. 182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labor of 1999, and the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990.

The ILO website summarizes the child labor international regulatory framework in the following table:


The minimum age at which children can start work.

Possible exceptions for developing countries

Hazardous work
Any work which is likely to jeopardize children’s physical, mental or moral heath, safety or morals should not be done by anyone under the age of 18.

18
(16 under strict conditions)

18
(16 under strict conditions)

Basic Minimum Age
The minimum age for work should not be below the age for finishing compulsory schooling, and in any case not less than 15.

15

14

Light work
Children between the ages of 13 and 15 years old may do light work, as long as it does not threaten their health and safety, or hinder their education or vocational orientation and training.

13 – 15

12 – 14

There are two interesting things to note in that table. First, the possible exceptions for developing countries column. The UN is made up of sovereign states who cannot be coerced into ratifying documents they believe is not in the best interest of serving their respective cultural norms and practices. Second, the definition of light work above clearly stated as work that does not interfere with school enrollment. As such, it would allow youth to pursue vocational and apprenticeship training programs after school hours, babysitting to make money, or merely help their parents in their stores.

At the end of the day, while child labor is still a widespread problem that affects millions of children and families across the globe, it is essential before we start criticizing every form of child employment out there, to understand the legal framework against which the system operates. After we have that clear picture in our minds, only then can we debate the merits and downsides of the existing system.

The rationale behind this legal framework is an understanding of the undeniable fact that some kids, somewhere out there, need the skills that come from labor, and sometimes, do need the small amount of money that comes with it. After all, nothing could teach discipline and responsibility than helping your dad run the family business at a tender age, or helping your mom sow the fields that your family depends on for sustenance.

Nagiub Mahfouz Cafe and Restaurant – A Stroll into a Forgotten Past

Most people living in Cairo above the age of 30 have no need for an introduction about the famous Naguib Mahfouz Cafe. For others who have never heard about the place, they are in for a treat. Nestled in the small roads of Khan El Khalili, the restaurant has been in operation for nearly 30 years. The cafe’s reputation is mainly due to its unforgettable name of the Egyptian Nobel Literature Award Writer, whose signature adorns the first wooden poll you see as you enter the cafe. 

Egyptian Tarboosh

Coming up to the Cafe’ nothing on the exterior gives away the ambiance inside. A closed wooden door, with a modern placket and a security gate, gives the impression of entering a forbidden, high-security location. Once inside, you are greeted by male waiter’s in tarabeesh – a traditional Egyptian headdress outlawed by Gamal Abd El Nasser in the aftermath of the 1952 revolution – and the sound of an oriental live musical performance of anoon, mixed in with the loud bustle of a crowded cafe.

Egyptian Oud

For those of us who enjoy oriental music but are not overly fond of loud cafe’s, Naguib Mahfouz offers two secluded restaurant locations close enough for you to hear the music, but private enough to enjoy talking to your dinner companions, which is where I preferred to sit with my brother and his fiance’.  From the moment we sat down to our tables, we were hooked. The rustic Egyptian decor, coupled with the ambiance and the traditional Egyptian menu, transformed us to a time when women were referred to as hanem, (lady) and men were either a bey or pasha (lord).

Between the three of us, we ordered three different dishes, and none of us were disappointed by the food. We ordered the traditional Egyptian pigeons dish, mix grill with rice dish, and I sampled the grilled half chicken with pasta casserole or makaroona bashamel. The grilled chicken had just the right amount of herbs to create a savory but healthy taste, which was nicely complemented by the filling pasta casserole. The pasta had a small hint of cheese in the white sauce, giving a nice twist to a traditional taste. Every dish simply had the exact amount of herbs that complement the natural flavor of the meats.

To fully engage in the Egyptian spirit, you could follow the traditional wisdom to digest food, where Egyptians usually drink red tea with mint, and smoke hookah, both of which are offered in the cafe section of Naguib Mahfouz. There you can fully immerse yourself in the music and ambiance of a traditional crowded Egyptian cafe’.

If you ever find yourself in Cairo, and want to taste local cuisine in an unforgettable locale, Nagiub Mahfouz is definitely the place to go.

Child Labor, A Necessary Evil? Part 1

Standing at McDonald’s today, waiting impatiently for my order to arrive, I was shocked by the teenage boy (no older than 15) handing me my brown paper bag order. Standing next to him in a grey apron was an even younger child, perhaps no more than 12 years old, whispering worriedly in his elder’s ears.
What the hell… was my first thought.
I felt completely outraged. How could a child work for a living!! I wanted to spring into action. First, I was going to ask the boy for his age, indicating that there is a problem here. Second, I would loudly make a scene with the manager to see if other people at the store would support my outrage. Third, perhaps even post the issue on Facebook to get public opinion behind the problem. I mean, after all, that would be the right thing to do, this is after all child labor, which is morally and legally just WRONG.
Child labor is a global issue that has haunted politicians since the 1800s. A 2016 ILO report estimated the number of children (between the ages of 5 -17) in labor as 152 million globally, of which, 73 million were in hazardous work. However, not all of these children were employed in morally questionable circumstances frowned upon by the International community.
But then it hit me. Had I asked the boy about his age, he would’ve probably lied …
Why would he do that, you ask? Because there is a chance he WANTS to be there.
As I observed his behavior more closely I noticed he obviously relied on his older friend for some advice. They were there together, perhaps even siblings. And if they were indeed related, could this job be a method of earning a living for a family that was struck by some sort of misfortune where the kids have to bring in cash instead of the parents? Maybe his parents are sick, or disabled somehow.
Of course, there is a chance also that he DOESN’T want to be there, that his family is made of a drug addict father who is using his kids to fuel his unemployed filthy habit.
The point is, I didn’t know his circumstances, and shouting loudly at the manager was not going to give me the answers I wanted. But that got me thinking about the validity of the whole “child labor” moral objections we as a society have been programmed to believe in. After all, the child was really in more danger than he would face helping his mother cook in her kitchen.
The child obviously comes from a poor family, and even if he goes to school regularly and attends university, he would be lucky to find a job in an economy where unemployment was 10%, and where unemployment of holders of an intermediate, university and higher degrees reached 87.7 percent of the total labor force.
What if this situation could be viewed as an apprenticeship. The situation actually gives the child valuable experience that he could later build on for the rest of his life. After all, he would have his foot in the industry, and perhaps one day he could open his own restaurant. I had recently come from a trip to Assiut where I interviewed three 19 years old teenagers who started operating their own cafe’s relying on nothing more than the experience they gained while working in similar vocations.
So I started to wonder, is all form of child labor illegal?
Turns out it wasn’t. According to the ILO, there are various categories of child labor, some of which was permitted legally. Children in employment is defined as a broader measure comprising both child labor and permitted forms of employment involving children of legal working age. There is also the definition of children in light work, where national laws or regulations may permit the employment or work of persons from 13 years of age (or 12 years in countries that have specified the general minimum).
Child Labor, on the other hand, excludes children in employment who are in permitted light work and those above the minimum age whose work is not classified as the worst form of child labor, or, in particular, as “hazardous work.

On the other end of the spectrum, we have the “nasty” forms of child labor. They are children in the worst forms of child labor, defined as children working in slavery, prostitution, illicit activities, or work which, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety, or morals of children. Children in hazardous work are those involved in any activity or occupation that, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm their health, safety, or morals.

So a kid working in MacDonald’s clearly fell in the first group of child employment, provided his age was no less than 13 or 12 years old. The kid was doing light work, after school hours (it was 5:00 pm when I saw him), and was not engaged in any shady or dangerous work. He was actually permitted by international conventions to be exactly where he was. As far as I am concerned, he reminded me of the bygone “apprentice” term, where kids at all ages would be permitted to shadow an older person in a vocation of their choice, in order to learn much needed skills that was not offered by conventional education.
So yaa I am all for it, but I wanted to learn more about child labor and apprenticeship history. Why did child labor get outlawed in the first place, and what happened to the apprenticeship mentality? That however, is the subject of another article…

Quench

 

Most of us go through life feeling that we are missing out on something. Yet that “something” is often an undefinable, beyond our grasp feeling that there could be more to our days than our normal routines. We wake up, go to our 9-5 jobs, come home, pay the bills and rinse and repeat. We might have a few friends to hang out with, we could perhaps have the occasional fun activity to look forward to, but overall, we would not feel quenched.

This undefinable “something” would usually rear its shy head into our subconscious minds in the form of admiration for someone else’s life, be it real or fictional. It could happen when we see that amazing dancer on T.V who just baffled their audience with their floor routine. Or it happen when we see a scene in a movie where the heroine is a kick-ass, completely toned ninja whose offensive moves makes her seem all strong and powerful. We might watch an interview with a famous book novelist and wounder quietly to ourselves “just how lucky is that person!”

Our mind however, is hardwired for survival, where conformity and society have programmed us early on to believe that our 9-5 jobs, and our ability to save every last penny we possibly can, is the only sure method of paying our bills. We are programed to believe that the safety of a stable job is the only method we would not be considered losers in today’s hectic world.

In the middle of this hassle, we learn to forget our passions, to the point where we no longer recognize that soft envious voice in our heads as one that is prompting us to go forward and explore the fullness of life as we would really want to live it. We forget that we are made up of huge potential that we are wasting away by our incessant marathon towards the 104k pensions, where we hope will provide us with the funds to finally go on that dream cruise.  Overall, we simply remain unquenched, always hungry for “more”.

Perhaps, we can just listen to that soft envious voice in our heads, to recognize it for what it really is, a calling to do more with our lives. And perhaps, we can then take concrete steps towards living the life WE want to live, by investing in making ourselves the best, damn versions we could ever hope to be, in our own eyes. Who knows, maybe after sometime we can find a way to turn our passion to profit.

 

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Our Beautiful Gilded Cage

In recent years the government’s plans to move informal settlements dwellers to government constructed projects has been hailed by many in the media as a respectable move that should have a positive impact on people’s lives. In reality all the move actually accomplishes is to make the city appear to be nicer by destroying some of the ugly red-brick buildings that are home to around 60% of the population of Cairo, but besides that it achieves very little else.

While many of these new home owners have filed a myriad of complaints against their new adobes, from high rent rates to difficulty in obtaining food and gas resources to issues with unit ownership, the government has yet to address the concerns of these new home owners, and chucks most of their complaints as unreasonable, and therefore fails to correct the problems perceived by the new settlers.

The key success factor in any development project has been regarded by many international development agencies as stakeholder participation, because after all, who can better describe their needs and assess the validity of intervention methods that the beneficiaries themselves. Despite this trend the government has yet to consider the demands of the residents of the newly established cities, and as such they leave a time bomb of concerns waiting to erupt at any moment.

The problem is that despite the government’s best intentions, such initiatives fails to address the root cause of the problem of informal settlements, which is chronic poverty. Moving people from informal settlements to the newly constructed government buildings is similar to taking a bird with tattered feathers and a broken wing and putting it in a gilded cage; its all show and no subsistence.

Therefore, it is unsurprising to find people complain of a 300 LE rent, which seems to any onlooker as a meager amount that is well below the actual maintenance cost of such residential units. However, when you compare the needed rent in proportion to monthly income (reported by some to be between 300 – 1000 LE) and the historic rent prices such residents are used to (which could vary between nothing for those who owned their apartments to around 20 LE), the amount in the eyes of the new resident’s borders on impossible.

Therefore, the only method that could assist in resolving this bottleneck in the project’s lifespan is the introduction of income generating schemes that would help the residents increase their income sources and therefore contribute more fully towards the maintenance of the project. An urban resettlement project that is devoid of such schemes will run the risk of failure as it simply becomes nothing but a beautiful shell devoid of the means to sustain itself.

Officials were often cited as saying that some of the resident’s concerns have already been met, for example, food stores have opened in the neighborhood with cheap prices, transportation has been made available, and schools do exist, with attempts to overcome any difficulties they might face in acquiring teachers. As for the rent issue, some have been deemed exempt such as widows and divorcee’s and people with disabilities, with NGO’s vowing to help others who are deemed unable to pay, a move while admirable, still fails to address the root cause of the problem and therefore will most likely prove unsustainable in the future.

Yet between official statements and resident’s reports there seem to exist two pictures that do not quite match. In Egypt, this a normal occurrence, but it leaves one wondering on how can we judge the truth when its seems so elusive, and how can one contribute positively to the discussion of the issue when all the facts are prone to multiple interpretations.